New York Times - Ships and Shipping

Wednesday, 30 September 2015

Exclusive: shipwatchers chart Russian hardware heading into Med
29/09 15:59 CET

Observers in Istanbul are gathering evidence of what seems to be increasing Russian naval activity of a military nature — ships moving from the Black Sea towards the Mediterranean via the Bosphorus Straits.
Turkish ship-spotters have described numerous vessels, including a general-purpose tank landing ship with bow and stern ramps for unloading vehicles. They speculate that these might be bound for Syria.
Euronews sent an official request for comment to the Russian Defence Ministry, but received no immediate response.
Photographer Yörük Işık, who is an amateur military ship observer, said: “In our observation group, the most important development we have seen is that commercial ships have also been used to carry military equipment, although not explosives. There are pre-fabricated barracks, water tanks and military trucks; we saw the logos used by Russian troops deployed in Ukraine.”
Işık told us this unusual Russian activity gathered momentum late this summer, in parallel with Moscow’s deepening involvement in the Syrian civil war. He shares his photos on his Twitter account @yorukisik.
“The pace of this traffic has revved up our hobby — we almost can’t keep up with all the ships. Every day last week there was a Russian military ship in the Bosphorus. Some days two or three Russian ships went through, at different times or at the same time. For example, last Saturday one was returning to its home port of Sevastopol while another bound for the Mediterannean passed each other right here, under the Bosphorus Bridge.”
A Russian defense ministry statement cited by the US Naval Institute think tank last Thursday said the Russian ships were headed for “training activity — anti-submarine, anti-ship, air defense and search-and-rescue”.
Our correspondent Bora Bayraktar summed up: “The amateur photographers we talked to say the Russian military ship traffic in the Straits has accelerated since August. It looks highly likely that this will increase as Russia tries to build a new naval base in Syria and support President Assad’s regime.”

Saga Cruises Orders New Ship from Meyer Werft for 2019 Delivery

on .
Saga Cruises newbuild cabin renderingSaga Cruises has ordered a new ship for 2019 delivery from Meyer Werft. The surprising order comes from a company that has always sailed second-hand tonnage. Saga promises the ship to be under 1,000 passengers.
The 55,900-ton vessel will be approx. 234 meters long, 30.8 meters wide and with a planned completion date of summer 2019. There is an option for a second ship for delivery in summer of 2021.
"Carrying less than 1000 passengers, it will retain the intimacy and personal service for which we are renowned. There will also be single-sitting dining in a choice of speciality restaurants, a selection of bars, indoor and outdoor pools, a spa, fabulous library, signature Britannia Lounge and much more – all with a fresh and contemporary twist on the traditions of classic Saga cruising," said the cruise line.

"The cabins are going to be a real showcase – spacious and modern, the ship’s design also means every one will have a balcony. In addition, around 15% of the accommodation will be just for solo travellers, with a choice of single cabin grades."

Source: Cruise Industry News.

Costa to Boost Indian Ocean Deployment

on .
Costa Cruises is gearing up its operation in the Indian Ocean by doubling the number of cruises for the winter 2016-2017 season, said the company.

The first of a total of 11 cruises is scheduled to depart on Oct. 14 2016 and the last on March 4 2017.The sailings are 14 days on the neoRomantica.
The cruise will depart from Mauritius and then sail to the Seychelles Islands, where the ship will berth for two days and two nights. The cruise will continue next to Madagascar, with day calls to Nosy Be, Diego Suarez and Tamatave; the next stop, one day and one night, will be Réunion island before returning to Mauritius, with a final overnight call.
The increase in the number of cruises in the Indian Ocean is the end result of an agreement signed today in Paris, during the IFTM/Top Resa travel trade show, between Costa Cruises, the Seychelles Ministry of Tourism and the Vanilla Islands Organization.

The agreement calls for cooperation and investments for promoting tourism, for improving port infrastructures and guest hospitality facilities, as well as for flight connections and for the excursions offered to guests.   

Source: Cruise Industry News.

HMS Grimsby helps recover six historic mines

In the midst of a week long NATO exercise the Royal Navy vessel has helped find and recover six historic mines.
Faslane based, HMS Grimsby joined fellow members of NATO Mine Countermeasures Group 1 (SNMCMG1) for Exercise Northern Coast 15.
For a week the minehunter worked with vessels from Belgium, the Netherlands, Norway, Germany, Estonia and Latvia to hunt and recover dummy mines as part of the exercise off the Danish coast.
However in the course of their role play they helped make improvements to navigational safety by discovering and removing six historic mines.
Lieutenant Commander Neil Griffiths, Commanding Officer of Grimsby, said: “It was a privilege to be a part of such a highly trained group of ships, from such a wide range of nations and it was a pleasure to be able to carry out the work we did to make the waters safer and ensure the freedom of navigation in the area.”

It was a privilege to be a part of such a highly trained group of ships, from such a wide range of nations and it was a pleasure to be able to carry out the work we did to make the waters safer and ensure the freedom of navigation in the area.
Lieutenant Commander Neil Griffiths
Crew 5, who currently operate Grimsby, led the charge during Exercise Northern Coast, fending off simulated attacks with aggression but also some British flair.
With the aid of her highly trained Clearance Diving team, she recovered a total of five mines during the exercise, a number only equalled by HNOMS Hinnoey, her Norwegian counterpart.
Able Seaman (Diver) Michael Scott, a member of the ships mine clearance diving team, said: “During the exercise I got to recover one of the drill mines that were positioned for us to train with.
“We used a piece of equipment called the ‘enclosed mine lifting bag’, which uses compressed gas to lift the mine from the seabed. This then allows us to recover it onboard much easier.”

Source: Royal Navy, UK.

In pics: 10 things to know about naval warship INS Kochi

  • HT Correspondent, Hindustan Times, New Delhi
  • Updated: Sep 30, 2015 16:58 IST

Union Defence Minister Manohar Parrikar, R K Dhowan (3rd from L), Chief of Naval Staff, S P S Cheema (5th from L), Commanding in Chief, Western Naval Command along with other officers during the commissioning of naval warship INS Kochi in Mumbai . (PTI)

INS Kochi, the stealth guided missile destroyer, was commissioned into the Indian Navy on Wednesday by defence minister Manohar Parrikar at the Mumbai dockyard.
Here are 10 things that you need to know about India’s biggest, indigenously-built warship:

The ship weighs over 7,500 tonnes, spanning over 164 metres in length and 17 metres at the beam. (REUTERS)


It is propelled by four gas turbines and designed to achieve speeds in excess of 30 knots (55.56 km/h). (REUTERS)

On board

The ship has a complement of about 40 officers and 350 sailors. The accommodation and living spaces have been designed with emphasis on ergonomics and habitability. (PTI)


Enhanced stealth features have been achieved through shaping of hull and use of radar-transparent deck fittings. A bow mounted sonar dome, the second of its kind in an indigenous naval platform, has been introduced to enhance sonar acoustic performance. (AFP)


The ship includes a successful fitment of vertically launched missile system for long distance engagement of shore and sea-based targets. It has a long-range BrahMos surface-to-surface missile. (REUTERS)


One of the few warships of the world and the second in the Indian Navy to have Multi-Function Surveillance and Threat Alert Radar to provide target data to Long Range Surface to Air Missile system. (EPA)


The ship has MF STAR and LR SAM systems to protect against incoming air borne and surface threats, at medium and close in range. The ship has 76 mm Super Rapid Gun Mount (SRGM) and AK 630 Close In Weapon System (CIWS) gun mounts. (


The ship can be classified as a ‘Network of Networks’ as it is equipped with Ship Data Network (SDN), Combat Management System (CMS), Automatic Power Management System (APMS) and Auxiliary Control System (ACS). (Hindustan Times)


It is equipped to operate two Sea King or Chetak helicopters. (Hindustan Times)


The ship’s anti-submarine arsenal consists of Indigenous Rocket Launchers (IRL), Indigenous Twin-tube Torpedo Launchers (ITTL) and bow-mounted new generation HUMSA Sonar Dome. (Hindustan Times)

L’addio al mare dell’antico Granatiere
Ultimo passaggio sotto il ponte

Cerimonia ufficiale al posto d’ormeggio numero 14 della stazione navale della Marina
in Mar Grande: saluto d’onore con tricolore alla presenza del capo di stato maggiore

di Nazareno Dinoi


 Il pattugliatore di squadra «Granatiere» della Marina Militare di stanza a Taranto, ha salutato definitivamente il mare alle 10.30 di stamane dopo trent’anni di navigazione in tutti i mari del mondo. Con una solenne e commovente cerimonia che si è svolta nel suo posto di ormeggio numero 14 della stazione navale in Mar Grande, il pattugliatore di squadra più vecchio della flotta militare italiana ha ammainato per l’ultima volta la bandiera. Il saluto d’onore del tricolore è avvenuto alla presenza del capo di Stato maggiore della Marina Militare, ammiraglio Giuseppe De Giorgi e delle massime autorità militari e civili della città di Taranto e naturalmente del suo ultimo equipaggio. Si nota l’assenza del sindaco Stefàno, anche se il gonfalone cittadino testimonia la partecipazione alla cerimonia dell’amministrazione comunale. 

L’atto formale con cui nave Granatiere viene radiata dalla flotta della Marina Militare fa parte del processo di ridimensionamento delle navi della Marina Militare che, a causa dell’invecchiamento della squadra navale, nel prossimo decennio dismetterà ben 51 delle 60 attuali navi in servizio.
Dopo la cerimonia dell’ammainabandiera la nave Granatiere, scortata dalla fregata Euro, ha attraversato lo storico ponte girevole di Taranto per l’ ingresso nel Mar Piccolo effettuando l’ultimo passaggio nel canale navigabile. Alle 17.45 è previsto il concerto della fanfara della Marina in Piazza della Vittoria e a seguire una esibizione del plotone di alta rappresentanza della Brigata marina San Marco. Tutti gli eventi in programma sono trasmessi in diretta sull’account Periscope di Twitter della Marina Militare.

Dopo la cerimonia dell’ammainabandiera la nave Granatiere, scortata dalla fregata Euro, ha attraversato lo storico ponte girevole di Taranto per l’ ingresso nel Mar Piccolo effettuando l’ultimo passaggio nel canale navigabile. Alle 17.45 è previsto il concerto della fanfara della Marina in Piazza della Vittoria e a seguire una esibizione del plotone di alta rappresentanza della Brigata marina San Marco. Tutti gli eventi in programma sono trasmessi in diretta sull’account Periscope di Twitter della Marina Militare.

Fuente: Corriere Della Sera, Milán, Italia,


Tuesday, 29 September 2015

Battleships History 

Published on Sep 12, 2014
A battleship is a large armored warship with a main battery consisting of heavy caliber guns. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries the battleship was the most powerful type of warship, and a fleet of battleships was vital for any nation which desired to maintain command of the sea. During World War II, aircraft carriers overtook battleships in power projection. Some battleships remained in service during the Cold War and the last were decommissioned in the 1990s.

Source: Youtube.

Royal Fleet Auxiliary bids farewell to RFA Orangeleaf

The last of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary Leaf Class support tankers is to leave the Service on Wednesday (30 September).
RFA Orangeleaf, built in Birkenhead and launched in 1975 before being commissioned for service with the RFA in 1984, will complete her service in the port where she was built 40 years ago.
The single hulled tanker will make way for the double hulled RFA Tidespring and her three sisters – Tiderace, Tidesurge and Tideforce.  These will enter service from 2016 and are designed to be more environmentally friendly – producing less carbon dioxide emissions - and more fuel efficient.
RFA Captain Duncan Lamb said: “It is with a heavy heart that the Royal Fleet Auxiliary says goodbye to an old friend. Orangeleaf has been a fantastic asset to the Naval Service over the last four decades delivering on Operations around the world.
“As a former Commanding Officer of Orangeleaf, I will personally be sad to see ‘the old girl’ leave the Service, however, Orangeleaf's departure makes way for the new Tide Class Tankers. I have been given the honour to Command the first Tide Class, RFA Tidespring, which is a hugely impressive and capable next generation Tanker.”

RFA orangeleafRFA orangeleaf
RFA orangeleaf
It is with a heavy heart that the Royal Fleet Auxiliary says goodbye to an old friend.
Captain Duncan Lamb Royal Fleet Auxiliary
RFA Orangeleaf was one of four original Leaf Class tankers – together with Appleleaf, Brambleleaf and Bayleaf – with RFA Oakleaf chartered later, but which differed considerably. Built originally for commercial owners, the ships were chartered by the Ministry of Defence (MOD) and fitted with accommodation and replenishment-at-sea capabilities.
Two years before she was formally renamed and chartered by the MOD, RFA Orangeleaf sailed from Portsmouth for the Falklands Conflict after being requisitioned for service under Operation Corporate.
In 1990 she supported the Type 42 destroyer HMS York following the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and was awarded the battle honour in 1991 along with a further ten RFA ships.
A year later RFA Orangeleaf supported HMS Cardiff and HMS Campbeltown during a humanitarian relief operation in the West Indies following Hurricane Andrew, and in 1997 she joined HMS Monmouth and the French Ship Surcouf in readying for the evacuation of British nationals from Congo as the political situation deteriorated.
She again supported HMS Monmouth off the coast of Sierra Leone in 1998 to provide humanitarian assistance during a civil war in the region and then in 2005 joined fellow RFA ships Argus, Fort George, Fort Victoria, Sir Bedivere, Sir Galahad, Sir Tristram and Wave Ruler in the International Fleet Review for Trafalgar 200 at Spithead. 
In 2011 RFA Orangeleaf was the first RFA to hold a light jackstay transfer (light load) with the Type 45 destroyer HMS Dragon. She has since taken part in an exercise with the Maritime & Coastguard Agency followed by Exercise Joint Warrior – a biannual large scale exercise off the Scottish coast.
As well as the history books, RFA Orangeleaf is also consigned to a series of children’s books called 'Mrs Orangeleaf and Friends', written by a former shipmate-turned author and vicar, Pierre Cornlouer.
Second Officer Kelly Taylor said: “Between July and November 2000 I was appointed to RFA Orangeleaf as Deputy Logistics Support Officer. During this time the USS Cole was attacked in the Yemen while we were in company with her, and 17 US sailors lost their lives. This memory from my time in Orangeleaf will stay with me forever. I was next appointed in 2006 as LSO around the UK coast where the dynamics and situation were certainly different from my previous trip. RFA Orangeleaf was a pleasure to serve in as she was not only a unique class of ship but also a pivotal operational asset to the RFA Service.”
Source: Royal Navy.

UK Carrier Strike Group takes shape for HMS Queen Elizabeth

Meet one of the indispensable members of the newly-formed UK Carrier Strike Group.
Royal Marine Lt Col Phil Kelly is the Strike Warfare Commander in the UK’s Carrier Strike Group battle staff which will be based in HMS Queen Elizabeth – his seventh aircraft carrier.
During the past few years the 44-year-old Irishman has spent time on the USS Ronald Reagan, Harry S Truman and George HW Bush as part of the long-lead specialist skills programme preparing the Royal Navy for the biggest warship it has ever had.
The former Harrier pilot, who served in HMS Ark Royal, Invincible and Illustrious, has been flying F/A-18 Hornets and learning all about carrier strike.

UK Carrier Strike Group takes shape for HMS Queen Elizabeth
It’s every little boy’s dream
Lt Col Kelly
“It was a brilliant experience. The US Navy provided incredible support to us. I also learned to drive the ship under Capt Andrew Loiselle,” he said.
His role as Strike Warfare Commander is to advise the Commander of the Carrier Strike Group on how to best fight the full range of aircraft and other strike assets in the task group – to both strike targets ashore and defend the ships at sea.
 UK Carrier Strike Group takes shape for HMS Queen Elizabeth 
on-board the USS George HW Bush
 UK Carrier Strike Group takes shape for HMS Queen Elizabeth 
Lt Col Kelly with ‘Royal’ emblazoned on his pilot’s helmet
 UK Carrier Strike Group takes shape for HMS Queen Elizabeth
 Lt Col Kelly prepares to land his F-18 on USS George HW Bush
The Carrier Strike Group is a powerful operational formation, comprising an aircraft carrier, air wing, destroyers and frigates and likely a submarine ready and able to conduct a range of missions around the globe.
“I define how we are going to use the aircraft as part of a layered defence system with the aircraft and ships and how we project power as carrier strike,” said Lt Col Kelly, who joined the Royal Marines 21 years ago.
“All of the embedded squadrons have a role, supporting all warfare areas. The embarked Lightning Force is there to project air power from the sea, striking targets deep inland identified within the Joint Campaign, while also offering wider utility in the protection of the CSG from air, surface and sub-surface threats.
“Our role will be to bring it all together. We are all looking forward to Queen Elizabeth coming into Portsmouth and I am looking forward to filling the flight deck with squadrons of all types and to instil a carrier strike team ethos that will see  every  aircraft type used in the most efficient way.
“The US Navy has been good enough to maintain our carrier strike skills and take them to the next level.”
Lt Col Kelly admits he was delighted to fly the F-18s.
“It’s every little boy’s dream, although it was a bit of a busman’s holiday for me as I got to understand how the US carrier strike worked.”
The pilot also had to get to grips with the cat-and-trap system of launch and recovery used on US carriers.
“Cat-and-traps flying is highly exhilarating but highly dangerous. Going from zero to 180mph in 1.5 seconds from the catapult makes a great fairground ride, but everyone would need a medical! Then you come back, sometimes at night, slowing from 150mph to zero in 177ft, with the significant G-force.
“Landing at night with limited visibility, with cloud and rain, a rolling and pitching deck, is the most challenging thing we do. We really earn our flying pay.”
The F-35Bs to be flown by combined Royal Navy and RAF squadrons on the Queen Elizabeth-class carriers, are STOVL – short take-off, vertical landing – variants,  a system which provides higher launch and recovery rates.
“I see this as a real opportunity to bring together my competency as a commando on land with my competency as a strike fighter pilot,” said Lt Col Kelly.
“My role as Strike Warfare Commander will provide the UK with a global strategic reach for strike fighter operations for the first time and be able to deal with more difficult threat environments.
 “It is our moment to show that the Royal Navy is leading UK defence with the global reach to deliver effective and credible combat power wherever it is needed.
“Our co-operation with the US and France in regenerating carrier strike will allow us to be effective very early in the delivery of the ship.”
During his time with the US Navy, Lt Col Kelly – who made his first visit to HMS Queen Elizabeth last month – was attached to Carrier Air Wing Eight, part of Carrier Strike Group Two, as deputy operations officer and spent time as deputy air wing commander.
Hundreds of RN personnel are being trained aboard US warships and the French Carrier Strike Group as part of the long lead skills programme.
Royal Navy personnel have been serving with the assault ship USS Kearsarge and numerous US aircraft carriers, including the USS Dwight D Eisenhower and George HW Bush.
Lt Col Kelly is one of only two Royal Marines jet pilots and revealed he was earmarked as a pilot at his selection board.
“I always wanted to be a commando and a pilot so got the difficult one out of the way first. The discipline instilled as a commando allowed me to handle flying training and be effective in combat.
“I am happy to now be in a role that utilises my life’s work.
“My role allows me to help anyone who has ambition and aspirations as I know what it is like to do some of these roles. The challenges are not insignificant but they are well worth the effort.
“Our position as a carrier strike team is to let people know we are here and formed up and to articulate how we will work.
“I also look after the equity of the Royal Marines in CSG and how we operate. I hope I am a great example of what you can do in the Services. A Royal Marine can do anything – if you are aiming high join the Royal Marines.”
The new UKCSG, under the command of Cdre Jerry Kyd, who will captain Queen Elizabeth, is currently based in HMNB Portsmouth but will move to the carrier in Rosyth next year. COMUKCSG has stood up and is forming rapidly as experienced officers with the right competencies join the team.
With a target for this new Battle Staff to achieve operational certification at the same time as the White Ensign is hoisted in Queen Elizabeth in 2017, the challenge is tough and the generation timelines racy.
Source: Royal Navy.

Monaco Yacht Show

Los gigantes de Mónaco

Vista aérea del puerto monegasco con algunos de los barcos del Monaco Yacht Show. | Eric Gaillard / Reuters
Vista aérea del puerto monegasco con algunos de los barcos del Monaco Yacht Show. | Eric Gaillard / Reuters

Actualizado Lunes, 28 de septiembre de 2015 09:56

El Monaco Yacht Show ha soltado amarras o, mejor dicho, las esloras más grandes y lujosas del mercado están ya en Puerto Hércules exhibiéndose en el salón náutico más exclusivo. En el mundo de los superyates el tamaño importa. Y mucho. Así queda el podio de las embarcaciones de ensueño más descomunales de la vigésimo quinta edición del certamen:

3. Silver Fast: a más de un millón el metro

Foto: burgessyachts.comFoto:
Con 77 metros de eslora, sólo ocupa el tercer puesto del ránking de los yates más grandes en Mónaco, pero su estilo fino y afilado asombra a cualquiera que lo vea. Espen Oeino ha sido el encargado de trazar el superyate, demostrando una vez más por qué es uno de los arquitectos navales más cotizados del planeta.
Las líneas del Silver Fast irradian velocidad. Y no mienten. Se trata del yate de aluminio más largo del mundo y el más rápido equipado con propulsión convencional. Es capaz de superar los 27 nudos de velocidad y tiene una autonomía de 4.500 millas. Un dato basta comprobar sus virtudes cuando surca los océanos: durante la travesía de Australia, donde fue construido en los astilleros Silver Yachts, a Europa, el barco sólo tuvo que parar una vez para repostar. Además, pese a su tamaño, tiene un calado de sólo 2,6 metros por lo que puede adentrarse en muchos puertos y calas donde otros superyates no tienen cabida.
En el interior, el armador cuenta con su propia cubierta y aún hay espacio para que 18 invitados, repartidos en siete camarotes, puedan pasar la noche a bordo. En la cubierta superior los pasajeros pueden distraerse en el cine al aire libre, en el jacuzzi con capacidad para ocho personas o en el beach club, que cuenta con spa, sauna, gimnasio, salón de belleza y masaje. Si las condiciones meteorológicas no acompañan, siempre queda refugiarse en el jardín de invierno de popa, una cubierta con paneles de cristal corredizos.
Hasta Mercedes-Benz ha sido seducido por esta bala de plata del mar, eligiendo la embarcación como escenario para presentar en un vídeo el nuevo modelo Clase S Cabriolet, vehículo que en la grabación aparece estacionado en el helipuerto, ubicado en la proa. ¿El precio de la última creación de Silver Yachts? 79,5 millones de euros, más de un millón por eslora.

2. Romea: secretismo alemán

El astillero alemán Abeking & Rasmussen botó el pasado febrero este superyate de 81,80 metros de eslora por 14 de manga. Desde entonces, pocos datos han trascendido sobre la segunda unidad más larga del Monaco Yacht Show 2015.
Sí se sabe que el diseño exterior e interior del Romea es obra de Terence Disdale y que está equipado con dos motores Caterpillar con los que alcanza los 14 nudos de velocidad de crucero y 16,6 de máxima. El casco ha sido construido en acero y la superestructura, en aluminio.
Una docena de invitados pueden disfrutar de las comodidades que ofrece el yate, con 23 tripulantes preparados para mimar a los pasajeros. Cuenta con seis camarotes y una piscina exterior de grandes dimensiones.

1. Solandge: un 'kilo' por una semana a bordo

Foto: burgessyachts.comFoto:
Mide 85,10 metros y fue construido en 2013 en el astillero alemán Lürssen. Pese a no ser de reciente construcción, sigue siendo uno de los superyates más modernos y elegantes del mercado, gracias al trabajo en el exterior de Espen Oeino y a los interiores de Aileen Rodriguez.
Se trata, además, de uno de los barcos privados más largos disponible para chárter. Pasar una semana a bordo, puede costar hasta un millón de euros más gastos en temporada alta.
El yate más grande del salón náutico de Mónaco de 2015 ya atracó en Puerto Hércules en la pasada edición, donde conquistó los premios La Belle Classe Superyachts y Mejor exterior que otorga el exclusivo Monaco Yacht Club. Los expertos apuntan a que el Solandge aspira de nuevo a varios galardones.
De sus seis cubiertas, destaca la cubierta superior con sus vistas panorámicas, donde se ha ubicado un beach club en el que hay espacio para una pista de baile, bar, jacuzzi y una elegante zona de estar. La cubierta donde se encuentra el puente de mando también encontramos un área reservado para un spa, sala de masajes, sauna, gimnasio y piscina.
Para los interiores, los diseñadores emplearon hasta 49 tipos de mármol y 33 maderas diferentes con un resultado elegante y algo ostentoso. Tiene capacidad para 12 invitados, alojados en siete camarotes.
El Solandge alcanza una velocidad de crucero de 14 nudos, con una máxima de 18 y una autonomía de 6.000 millas náuticas.

Fuente: El Mundo, Madrid, España.